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The Park was created to protect and at the same time exploit Lake Trasimeno, one of the largest lakes of the Italian peninsula with a surface of 128km/q, a little less than Lake Como. The Park includes all the surrounding area of the lake, and therefore also the historical centres like Castiglione del Lago and Passignano. Lake Trasimeno has been historically called "the lake of Perugia" and this definition clearly highlights the importance that the lake basin has always had and still has for all north-western Umbria and for the territory of the Tuscan Chiana. Lake Trasimeno has all the features of a great natural resource which must be strictly protected and promoted as far as the uses compatible to its conservation are concerned. There are three islands in the lake: Polvese, Maggiore and Minore. On the islands, there are olive trees and pines. The waters of the lake house a rich ichthyofauna: tenches, eels, carps, pikes, and perches. The balance existing among the species seems to have been broken by the introduction of the cat-fish or because of the changes of the habitat. The avifauna consists of birds of prey such as the short-toed eagle, the eagle owl, and the osprey.

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